임신과 흡연 (Smoking during Pregnancy)

흡연 (Smoking)은 일반인도 좋지 않은 습관이다. 여러 가지 암, 심장병, 뇌혈관 질환등과 밀접한 관련이 있는 것으로 알려져 있다.

임산부도 마찬가지 이다. 더욱이 임신부의 경우는 흡연으로 인해 저 체중아, 신생아 사망률 증가, 학습능력저하, 조기 태반박리 등으로 인한 사산 등의 심각한 문제가 생길 수 있다. 임신 중 흡연은 유산, 사산, 조산, 저체중, 기형, 그리고 돌연사 증후군과 관련이 있는 것으로 알려져 왔다. 또한 임신부가 담배를 피울 경우 아기에게 학습장애나 행동발달 장애가 온다는 보고도 있으며, 태아가 암에 걸릴 확률은 최고 20배나 높다는 보고도 있다.

  1. 태아에게 공급되는 산소의 양을 줄인다.
  2. 태아의 심장박동을 증가시킨다.

합병증

  1. 유산(Abortion)사산 (Stillbirth) 을 증가시킨다.
  2. 조산과 저체중을 유발한다. (평균 300g 감소)
  3. 신생아의 호흡기 질환을 증가시킨다.
  4. 기형아 발생을 증가시킨다. (약 2배)

참고문헌

  • Systematic and meta-analytic review of research examining the impact of menstrual cycle phase and ovarian hormones on smoking and cessation. Nicotine Tob Res. 2015 Apr;17(4):407-21.
  • The 2014 Surgeon General's report: commemorating the 50th Anniversary of the 1964 Report of the Advisory Committee to the US Surgeon General and updating the evidence on the health consequences of cigarette smoking. Am J Epidemiol. 2014 Feb 15;179(4):403-12.
  • Differences in age at death according to smoking and age at menopause. Menopause 2015; doi:10.1097/GME.0000000000000501.
  • Smoking and infertility: a committee opinion
  • The Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine
  • American Society for Reproductive Medicine, Birmingham, Alabama
  • The effects of smoked nicotine on measures of subjective States and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hormones in women during the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. J Addict Med. 2015 May-Jun;9(3):195-203.
  • Does maternal smoking have a negative physiological effect on breastfeeding? The epidemiological evidence. Breastfeed Rev. 2003 Jul;11(2):19-29.
  • Breastfeeding and Smoking: Short-term Effects on Infant Feeding and Sleep. Pediatrics. 2007 Sep; 120(3): 497?502.
  • Tobacco smoke causes premature skin aging. J Dermatol Sci.2007 Dec;48(3):169-75.
  • Molecular basis of tobacco smoke-induced premature skin aging. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc.2009 Aug;14(1):53-5.
  • Association between urine cotinine levels and bone mineral density in lumbar spine and femoral neck among adult males. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2014 Feb 15;39(4):311-7.
  • Dose-related effect of urinary cotinine levels on bone mineral density among Korean females.
  • Osteoporos Int. 2013 Apr;24(4):1339-46.
  • Safety concerns and health benefits associated with oral contraception. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004;190(Suppl 4):5.
  • Treating tobacco dependence in women. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2007 Oct;16(8):1211-8.
  • Smoking during pregnancy in France between 1972 to 2003: results from the national perinatal surveys. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris).
  • 2011;40(1):42?.49.
  • Smoking Patterns and Receipt of Cessation Services Among Pregnant Women in Argentina and Uruguay. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2015, 1-10
  • Smoking cessation in pregnancy: A review of postpartum relapse prevention strategies. J Am Board Fam Pract 2004;17:264.
  • Health consequences of smoking 1-4 cigarettes per day. Tobacco control. 2005;14(5):315?20.
  • The 21st century hazards of smoking and benefits of stopping: a prospective study of one million women in the UK. Lancet. 2013;381(9861):133?41.
  • Active and passive smoking and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2015 Nov;154(2):213-24.
  • Smoking during pregnancy in France between 1972 to 2003: results from the national perinatal surveys. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 2011;40(1):42?.49.
  • Smoking Patterns and Receipt of Cessation Services Among Pregnant Women in Argentina and Uruguay. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2015, 1-10
  • Smoking cessation in pregnancy: A review of postpartum relapse prevention strategies. J Am Board Fam Pract 2004;17:264.

연결문서

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